Aerys Targaryen may refer to:
- King Aerys I Targaryen, second son of King Daeron II Targaryen, who directly succeeded his father on the throne after the untimely death of his older brother, Baelor Breakspear. Died without issue, hence the throne passed to his brother Maekar, grandfather of the later Aerys II.
- King Aerys II Targaryen, commonly remembered as "the Mad King". Father of Rhaegar, Viserys, and Daenerys. Son of King Aegon V, himself the son of King Maekar, and thus the great-nephew of King Aerys I.