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The inhabitants of Westeros and Essos have been using weapons made of iron and steel for at least the past six thousand years.

Weapons

When the First Men migrated to Westeros twelve thousand years ago, they introduced weapons made of bronze (copper/tin alloy) to the continent. The copper mines of Slaver's Bay were used to produce bronze weapons for the legions of the ancient Ghiscari Empire in Essos. The superior iron weapons of the Andals were a decisive factor in the success of the Andal invasion of Westeros six thousand years ago, sweeping aside the First Men who were equipped with weapons and armor made of weaker bronze. The old Valyrian Freehold used iron weapons during its conquest of the Ghiscari Empire five thousand years ago. Thus the "Iron Age" of the known world began at least six thousand years ago. In time, the First Men in the North of Westeros who had managed to repulse the Andals from their lands adopted many of their customs, such as their language, writing system, and knowledge of forging iron weapons.

In the present day, bronze weapons and armor are a relic, not seen on the battlefield, though some of the more sophisticated wildlings living Beyond the Wall in Westeros forge their own bronze weapons, much as their First Men ancestors did. While the wildlings lack the ability to forge iron weapons on their own, they frequently trade with smugglers for iron weapons (in exchange for furs, etc.), so iron weapons can be encountered in the possession of the Free Folk.

Other materials used for making more exotic weapons include:

  • Valyrian steel - an extremely high-quality steel forged in the old Valyrian Freehold, rumored to be forged with the aid of magical spells. After the fall of Valyria, knowledge of how to forge new Valyrian steel was lost. Current Valyrian steel weapons are priceless, and new Valyrian steel weapons can only be made by melting down preexisting ones. Even the knowledge of how to reforge preexisting Valyrian steel is extremely limited: the famously skilled blacksmiths of Qohor are capable of reforging Valyrian steel, albeit with extreme difficulty.
  • Dragonglass - the sharp black volcanic rock also known as "obsidian". Far too brittle to make swords with, but incredibly sharp, the Children of the Forest once wielded dragonglass daggers and bows with quite effective arrowheads made out of dragonglass.


Swords

The most common form of swords are ‘’’longswords’’’, blades meant to be wield with one hand while the other hand holds a shield. Longswords are often what is meant when referring simply to “swords”. ‘’’Greatswords’’’ (also known as broadswords) are much larger than longswords, so large that they can only be wielded using both hands, preventing usage of a shield. ‘’’Bastard swords’’’ (also known as a "Hand-and-a-half sword") are of an intermediate size, larger than longswords but short enough that they can still be wielded with one hand, though it is preferable to use two hands (they are called “bastard” swords because they don’t quite fit into the other categories of longsword or greatsword).

Greatswords:

Bastard swords:

Longswords:

There are also various kinds of bladed weapons which are smaller than a longsword, such as shortswords and the even smaller daggers. There is no specific definition for when a large dagger becomes a small sword; in general, a dagger is a sidearm and not intended as a primary weapon.

Other bladed weapons

Other kinds of bladed weapon, differing from classic Westerosi knights' swords include:

  • Braavosi rapier - Arya Stark's custom-forged sword Needle was made in the style of a Braavosi rapier, a popular weapon design from the Free Cities. The blade is thin and light, meant for quick thrusting attacks.
  • Arakh - the curved half-sword, half-scythe of the Dothraki mounted hordes.
  • White Walker ice blade

Various kinds of warhammers and axes may also be encountered on the battlefield. Robert Baratheon favored wielding a warhammer, and during the Battle of the Trident killed Prince Rhaegar Targaryen with a mighty swing from his hammer which crushed in Rhaegar’s chest.

Ranged weapons: bows and crossbows

Various bows and crossbows are employed in various armies.

Armies

Armies in Westeros

  • The North
  • The Westerlands
  • The Reach
  • The Iron Islands
  • The Riverlands
  • The Stormlands
  • The Vale
  • The Crownlands
  • Dorne
  • The Free Folk

Armies in Essos

  • The Free Cities
  • Slaver’s Bay
  • The Dothraki
  • Qarth

Ships

See also

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