Rhaenys Targaryen may refer to:
- Rhaenys Targaryen (sister of Aegon I), the sister of Aegon I Targaryen, conqueror of Westeros, and mother of Aenys Targaryen.
- Rhaenys Targaryen (Queen Who Never Was), the sister of Viserys I Targaryen and Daemon Targaryen. She was also the wife of Corlys Velaryon and mother of Laenor Velaryon, who wed his cousin Rhaenyra Targaryen, daughter to Viserys I and niece to Rhaenys.
- Rhaenys Targaryen (daughter of Rhaegar), eldest child and only daughter of Rhaegar Targaryen, and older half-sister of Jon Snow. She was murdered along with her mother and full-brother at the Sack of King's Landing.