I have been looking back on previous episodes of Game of Thrones and I have discovered other mentioned Dragons mentioned by Viserys. Since no official caption for the series is currently available, these are my best guesses on how to spell them.
These names can be found in episode 4 of Game of Thrones.
- Yup, I was aware of these but since we don't know how they're spelt it's difficult to put them into the Wiki. I could try Tweeting the episode's writer, see if he lets us know how they're written.--Werthead 10:06, June 17, 2011 (UTC)
Umm, pretty sure they're the ones mentioned in the book series.
I do belive this article should have a 'Description' section, of the average apperancce of Dragons and their characteristics. Id love to do it myself. Noc noc... whos their? Darknesssss 20:47, June 4, 2012 (UTC)
- Sounds like a reasonable idea to me, go ahead if you would like. Please can you base it on the show's depiction of them.--Opark 77 21:27, June 4, 2012 (UTC)
- Done. like it? Noc noc... whos their? Darknesssss 04:19, June 6, 2012 (UTC)
- Good start, thank you. I have given it a copy edit.--Opark 77 08:27, June 6, 2012 (UTC)
- Shouldent it be mentioned that they are Wyverns and can form close bonds to humans? Noc noc... whos their? Darknesssss 08:30, June 6, 2012 (UTC)
- I think that wyvern is an esoteric term that will not explain much to our readers. I think the description itself is more meaningful than comparing them to another mythical creature. Where in the show is it established that they can form close bonds to humans?--Opark 77 09:55, June 6, 2012 (UTC)
- Well, i would base their abilities to form close bonds due to the dragons relationships's to Daenerys, since she raised them they obey her, and jump in happyness when they see her. Plus, Daenerys even said to Doreah that Drogon loves her, and she helped with raising him, id call that a bond. Plus, where not comparings them to other mythical creatures, the dragons in the books and show are Wyverns, many people who know the different types of dragons can quickly identify them, since they have all the qualities of a Wyvern. Noc noc... whos their? Darknesssss 02:34, June 7, 2012 (UTC)
- This article is a current Featured Article candidate please feel free to leave comments at Featured Article nomination.
When I watched the episode I noticed the tubes in their throats; my guess is that this is the same principle as in the 2002 film Reign of Fire: they don't just suddenly blast "fire" out of both tubes. Instead, they expel two different reactants out of each tube - sort of like epoxy. When both reactants mix it produces flame.--The Dragon Demands (talk) 07:24, May 14, 2013 (UTC)
Cleanup November 2013
Dragon names from episode 1.4 have been superseded
Apparently the TV series just made up names for dragons in episode 4 of Season 1, "Cripples, Bastards and Broken Things".
The short novella The Princess and the Queen reveals the names of all Targaryen dragons, and they don't use the names that the TV series mentioned in passing in a single early episode.
Viserys specifically says his father gave him a candy if he could remember the name of each dragon as they passed their skulls....but I think it a fairly minor retcon to say that these are the names of various Valyrian dragons from many centuries ago, long before the War of Conquest - and that they didn't actually have their skulls in the Red Keep.--The Dragon Demands (talk) 00:03, November 11, 2013 (UTC)
An Index of Dragons
Much has been made of the statement that the Red Keep was decorated with the skulls of nineteen dragons after they died out. This isn't necessarily every dragon who ever lived as some may have died at sea and their remains were not recovered. This is an attempt to list them all, and possibly develop a genealogy of dragons.
The original Targaryen dragons
When the Targaryens first colonized Dragonstone a century before the War of Conquest (and only twelve years before the Doom of Valyria) they took with them five Valyrian dragons. Of these, four actually died during the next one hundred years, making Balerion the only surviving Valyrian-born dragon. The others had left eggs behind, however, from which hatched Vhagar and Meraxes.
Also of note is that there were actually several dragons who died as hatchlings, and who therefore are not particularly remembered in historical texts. Some may have never been formally named, or if they were, they had such little impact on history in their short lives that they are not well remembered.
Dragons who died before the Dance of the Dragons
- Meraxes - killed in Dorne during the reign of Aegon I. Took a Dornish crossbow bolt to the eye. This apparently also killed Queen Rhaenys.
- Quicksilver - dragon of Aenys I. After he died, his brother Maegor claimed the throne (ahead of Aenys's sons) to put down the Faith Militant Uprising. Aenys's eldest son Aegon had escaped and as Maegor's reign grew tyrannical, dissenters rallied to him, and eventually he became the new rider of Quicksilver (then a fairly large dragon given that it was around 30 years old...but nowhere near as large as the 150 year old Balerion). Aegon rode Quicksilver to lead a revolt but both dragon and rider were killed by Maegor riding Balerion at the Battle Beneath the Gods Eye.
- Balerion - died at of old age in the last few years of the reign of Jaehaerys I, at around two centuries old. Apparently the only dragon to die of old age. Last ridden by Prince Viserys I (later succeeded Jaehaerys I as king), but he bonded with no new dragon.
The Dance of the Dragons: The Blacks and the Greens
The Dance of the Dragons was the disastrous Targaryen civil war fought from 129 to 131 AC. The two factions were known as the Greens, led by the usurper King Aegon II (and his mother, Queen Alicent Hightower), and the Blacks, led by Queen Rhaenyra. Jaehaerys I was succeeded by his grandson Viserys I, who originally married a woman of House Arryn, but she later died and their only surviving child was their daughter Rhaenyra - who thus grew up as the heir designate and was expected to succeed her father. Viserys I later remarried, however, to Alicent Hightower, who gave him three sons and a daughter - all half-siblings of Rhaenyra. Aegon II's supporters were called "the Greens" and Rhaenyra's supporters were called "the Blacks".
Dragons controlled by the Greens:
- Vhagar - ridden by Prince Aemond One-Eye. Now grown almost as large as Balerion during the War of Conquest (Vhagar's body core was about five times the size of a war-horse). The Blacks considered Vhagar to be equal to multiple other adult dragons, and only ever discussed facing it by ganging up with three to four other dragons.
- Sunfyre - ridden by King Aegon II. Called "Sunfyre the Golden" due to the color of his scales, and considered the most beautiful dragon to ever fly the world's skies. Relatively young, maybe 20 years old, but a more than capable fighter.
- Dreamfyre - ridden by Queen Helaena. Originally belonged to Princess Rhaena, older sister of Jaehaerys I and Alysanne.
- Tessarion, the Blue Queen - ridden by Prince Daeron the Daring. Relatively young, though capable of combat. Maybe 15-20 years old? More or less in the same size-class as Sunfyre and Seasmoke, though smaller than either of them. Used to great effect by Daeron in conjunction with the Hightower land army, scouting ahead and burning out enemy emplacements.
The Greens also controlled two young dragons not yet big enough to ride:
- Morghul - bonded with Jaehaerys, son of Aegon II.
- Shrykos - bonded with Jaehaerya, twin of Jaehaerys and daughter of Aegon II.
Dragons controlled by the Blacks:
The Blacks actually "possessed" fourteen named dragons, compared to the Greens' four, but even the Blacks realized from the outset this advantage existed in name only. At the beginning of the Dance, only three of the Blacks' dragons were old and powerful, battle-ready dragons with riders (Syrax, Caraxes, and Meleys). Four others had riders but were only young striplings barely able to fight an adult dragon (Vermax, Arrax, Tyraxes, and Moondancer), and another was practically a hatchling and not nearly old enough to be ridden at all by a child (Stormcloud). Another three dragons were old and powerful, but they were currently riderless. A final group of three "wild" dragons had no previous riders and would be difficult to tame.
- Syrax - ridden by Queen Rhaenya. Called a "she-dragon", laid at least two clutches of eggs. Syrax and Caraxes were of comparable size, "huge and formidable" (with body cores about three times the size of a war horse). The war began in 129 AL, and Rhaenyra first claimed "young" Syrax when she was seven years old in 104 AL - so Syrax (and possibly Caraxes) may have been 30-40 years old, maybe more.
- Syrax is the only dragon with stated parent-child relationships so far. One of the eggs from Syrax's second clutch was given to Rhaena of Pentos, and during the war from one of these eggs hatched the dragon Morning. It seems likely that her previous clutch (or clutches) were eggs given to Rhaenyra's sons, possibly making Syrax the mother of Vermax, Arrax, Tyraxes, and Stormcloud (and maybe Moondancer?)
- Caraxes, the Blood Wyrm - ridden by Daemon Targaryen. One of the largest and most battle-hardened dragons of its day, due to Daemon's extensive foreign campaigns in the Stepstones.
- Meleys, the Red Queen - ridden by Queen-That-Never-Was Rhaenys, granddaughter of Jaehaerys I through the Old King's eldest son Aemon (Viserys and Daemon were the sons of Jaehaerys's second son, Baelon). Rhaenys in turn married Coryls Velaryon and was mother of Laena and Laenor Velaryon - thus grandmother of Baela and Rhaena of Pentos, and alleged grandmother of Laenor's three alleged sons.
- Moondancer - ridden by Baela Targaryen, Daemon's daughter from his first marriage to Laena Targaryen. Moondancer was small and barely large enough to support a 13 year old girl in flight. His younger daughter Rhaena had a dragon at one point, but it died as a hatchling before the Dance. After the war began, Rhaena of Pentos was sent to the Eyrie with three eggs from a new clutch laid by Syrax, where she prayed daily for their hatching.
Rhaenyra's three older sons, from her first marriage, all possessed dragons. They were all very young, however, and only the oldest two had dragons capable of carrying a rider. Their ability to fly long distances with a rider technically made them count as "battle-ready" but even Rhaenyra and Daemon were wary to send them into combat against other dragons:
- Vermax - ridden by Rhaenyra's eldest son Jacaerys "Jace" Velaryon. Sent on a mission to the Eyrie and the Winterfell to rally them to Rhaenyra's side. Young but a capable fighter.
- Arrax - ridden by Lucerys "Luke" Velaryon. Sent to Storm's End to try to sway it to Rhaenyra's side, only to accidentally arrive at the same time that Aemond arrived on the great dragon Vhagar, also seeking the same goal. Even younger than Vermax, only just recently capable of flying long distances with a rider - Arrax was sent to Storm's End because they thought it was the easier and safer path, while Vermax was sent on the long flight to Winterfell.
- Tyraxes - bonded with the youngest of Rhaenyra's three sons from her first marriage, Joffrey "Joff" Velaryon, a boy of twelve. Tyraxes was barely old enough to support a rider's weight for moderate distances. It was capable of carrying riders from Dragonstone to the Vale (which is nearby), but Rhaenyra insisted it wasn't ready for actual battle, despite Joffrey's protests.
Rhaenyra's sons from her second marriage, to Daemon Targaryen, only had one dragon, too young to even consider using:
- Stormcloud - belonged to Aegon the Younger (the future Aegon III). Aegon himself was still only a child, and Stormcloud was too young to carry his weight at all. Rhaenyra was so concerned for her youngest two sons' safety, and Stormcloud was deemed to be so young, that all three were sent away to the Free Cities to remain in safety while the civil war erupted. But they never arrived...
"Retired" and "wild" dragons
If a dragon's original rider dies it may reject many future riders before accepting another. At the time of the Dance, there were so many dragons that there were actually more than the current number of Targaryens. These "retired" dragons lived on Dragonstone island, awaiting new riders:
- Vermithor - once ridden by King Jaehaerys I. Largest dragon after Balerion and Vhagar.
- Silverwing - once ridden by Good Queen Alysanne, Jaehaerys I's sister-wife. Nearly as old and large as Vermithor.
- Some say there's a warging-like mental connection between dragon and rider, and that after Jaehaerys and Alysanne died, kernels of their consciousnesses survived in a Second Life inside of their dragons. Maybe it was more like their dragons were influenced by them. At any rate, Vermithor and Silverwing were pair-bonded and are described as coiling together (mating) in the fields. They may have been a breeding pair that produced offspring.
- Seasmoke - once ridden by Rhaenyra's first husband, Laenor Velaryon. Young, maybe 15-20 years old, same size range as Sunfyre and Tessarion, but a capable fighter.
If a dragon does not bond to a rider between when it hatches and when it grows to maturity, it will become extremely difficult to ever tame it. These "wild" dragons lived on Dragonstone (along with the "retired" dragons), awaiting the day that a brave Targaryen would attempt to master them. Similar to the retired dragons, the wild dragons occurred during this generation alone because for once, there were more dragons than living members of the Targaryen family. Because they didn't have riders they were just given informal monickers for names by the smallfolk whose livestock they hunted. The wild dragons included:
- Sheepstealer - a ferocious beast, so-called because he developed a taste for mutton, and hunted across the shores of Blackwater Bay to seize sheep from local flocks. He was hatched during the early years of the reign of Jaehaerys I. He was very much a sharp contrast with the earlier, regal-looking dragons with impressive-sounding names: half-abandoned by the Targaryens, he had only the derisive nickname "Sheepstealer", and unlike the regal, beautiful color-patterns of past dragons, he was noted as having a bland, ugly, mud brown coloration. Very much the discarded mutt of the Targaryen dragons, he was nonetheless close to eighty years old by the time of the Dance, meaning he had grown to impressive and dangerous size.
- Grey Ghost - a shy beast afraid of humans, with a misty grey coloration. It nested alone in a cave in the side of the Dragonmont. In contrast to Sheepstealer, Grey Ghost had a taste for fish, and would hunt for long hours over Blackwater Bay scanning for prey. A very reclusive animal, it was barely seen by men - particularly because unlike Sheepstealer, it didn't come near livestock herds to feed itself, actively avoiding people to take what it needed from the seas. The difficulty in bonding a rider to Grey Ghost wasn't that it had a ferocious personality, but that it was so reclusive that people have great difficulty even finding it - Grey Ghost was barely glimpsed by human eyes, except the occasional sighting by smallfolk out at sea.
- The Cannibal - the most ferocious of the wild dragons. With coal-black scales across its entire body, with no highlights. It was so-called because, if left unguarded, it actively attacked the dragon nests and hatcheries on Dragonstone, to feast on eggs and young hatchlings.
- Something was wrong with its mind or temperament: it frequently attacked other dragons as well, and would certainly have tried to eat them if it could have overpowered them. Nor was this simply aggression, but a positive taste for the flesh of other dragons: it even devoured the carrion-flesh of dead dragons if a corpse was left unguarded (from other hatchlings, etc.). It is possible that, in a parallel to the Targaryen madness, generations of compound incest among the Targaryen dragons (which all descended from only three originals) had produced some instability in the Cannibal's sanity. It was the oldest and thus largest of the wild dragons; it was therefore older than Sheepstealer and possibly born before the reign of Jaehaerys I even began.
- There is another, intriguing theory: the smallfolk of Dragonstone say that the Cannibal was living on the island before the Targaryens settled it. It is known that dragons were once widespread throughout the world, in the Dawn Age (dragon skeletons have been found in Westeros and Sothoryos, and other parts of Essos). Or maybe it was another Valyrian dragon that just found its way to the Dragonmont years before. If true, this would make the Cannibal older and larger than Balerion was when he died: 130 years since the Conquest, and 100 years before that the Targaryens settled Dragonstone, so he would have to be over 230 years old. According to this theory, the Cannibal attacked the eggs and hatchlings of Targaryen dragons because it recognized that they weren't of the same brood or clan that it was, like a lion attacking a foreign pride's cubs.
Realizing that they had more riders than dragons, the Blacks began searching for bastard Targaryen children, said to be "born of dragonseed" - they were called the "seeds" for short. In some cases they were the sons or grandsons of original bastards. Most were found in or around the smallfolk villages of Dragonstone island itself. Many died attempting to bond with the six unclaimed dragons, in an event known as "The Sowing" of the Dragonseeds. No one was foolish enough to even attempt riding the Cannibal, and several tried to simply find Grey Ghost but it hid from all human presence. The "retired" dragons were at least used to the presence of people - though they still killed many who attempted to ride them. Sheepstealer was far more challenging, because it had never known a rider at all - many more died attempting to master it. Nonetheless, four dragonseeds successfully bonded with these four dragons:
- Vermithor - ridden by a blacksmith's bastard, a towering man known as Hugh the Hammer, or Hard Hugh, or Hard Hugh Hammer (his name was not "Hugh of House Hammer", there is no "House Hammer").
- Silverwing - ended up bonding with a pale-haired man-at-arms known as Ulf the White, or "Ulf White" (again, there is no "House White", this was just a shortened form of his nickname). Ulf was a drunken buffoon, also known as "Ulf the Sot" due to his drinking ("Sot" means "Drunk"). He spent more time drunk and unconscious than he did riding Silverwing, but no one else could be found who would bond with the beast. Due to his drunkenness no one took Ulf as a serious threat, though he became the viciously loyal lackey of Hard Hugh Hammer. Quite probably the only reason that Silverwing survived the Second Battle of Tumbleton, in which so many other dragons died, is because Ulf was so thoroughly drunk and passed-out when the surprise assault began that he slept through the entire battle, remaining unconscious despite the noise of the battle and screams of dying dragons outside of his tent. Silverwing was therefore able to avoid the battle entirely.
- Seasmoke - bonded with a young fifteen year old boy named Addam of Hull. Prince Jacaerys and Lord Corlys were so impressed with the boy that they both petitioned Queen Rhaenyra to legitimize him and remove his taint of bastardy, after which he became known as Addam Velaryon. Addam's brother Alyn of Hull attempted to bond with Grey Ghost but could not catch the beast, and then attempted to bond to Sheepstealer - who nearly killed him, but Addam's timely intervention on Seamoke managed to scare the wild dragon away.
- It was said that Addam and Alyn were bastards fathered by Laenor, but Laenor was notoriously a homosexual and many found this doubtful. Rather, many believe that they were actually fathered by Laenor's father Corlys, but he never would have acknowledged them while his wife Rhaenys lived. After she died in the war, he pushed to have them both legitimized. Alyn survived the war and became an admiral under Daeron I the Young Dragon during the Conquest of Dorne, and fathered bastard children with Aegon III's daughter Elaena.
- Sheepstealer - Sheepstealer killed more attempted riders than the other three, having never known a rider before. For a time, it appeared that none could master him. ironically, as the cast-off, ignored, "ugly duckling" of the dragons, Sheepstealer did eventually bond with a forgotten and ignored bastard girl who was living as a commoner and did not know of her royal bloodline. This teenaged bastard girl, named only "Nettles", was of a kindred spirit with Sheepstealer and bonded with him. She was described as dark-featured and foul-mouthed.
Fate of Dragons
Before the Dance of the Dragons:
- Meraxes - killed in Dorne by sustained crossbow bolt fire to its eyes. Died with Queen Rhaenys.
- Quicksilver - killed by Maegor and Balerion in the Battle Beneath the Gods Eye.
- Balerion - died of old age near the end of the reign of King Jaehaerys I. Possibly the only dragon to ever die of old age, at around two centuries old.
During the Dance of the Dragons:
- Arrax - killed in a duel with Vhagar at the very beginning of the war.
- Meleys, the Red Queen - killed along with Queen Who Never Was Rhaenys at the Battle of Rook's Rest
- Vermax - killed at the Battle of the Gullet
- Stormcloud - killed in the Battle of the Gullet
- Shrykos - killed at the Storming of the Dragonpit, swarmed by hundreds of rioters
- Morghul - killed at the Storming of the Dragonpit
- Tyraxes - killed at the Storming of the Dragonpit
- Dreamfyre - killed at the Storming of the Dragonpit
- Syrax - killed at the Storming of the Dragonpit
- Vhagar - killed by Caraxes in an epic duel at Harrenhal
- Caraxes - mortally wounded by Vhagar in their duel at Harrenhal. They both plunged into the lake in freefall. Caraxes bit out Vhagar's throat while Vhagar ripped open Caraxes' belly. Caraxes pitifully managed to climb out of the lake and onto the shore before expiring.
- Seasmoke - killed at the Second Battle of Tumbleton by Vermithor, his head torn from his body.
- Vermithor - mortally wounded by Seasmoke at the Second Battle of Tumbleton and quickly died of its injuries, unable to fly with shredded wings.
- Tessarion - mortally wounded by Vermithor at the Second Battle of Tumbleton. Riderless, it turned on the riderless Vermithor for reasons unknown, possibly to help Seasmoke, in a three way tumble. Tessarion's belly was opened up but not its immediately vital organs, so it was taking it hours to die. Eventually the victorious Black army had it killed by shooting it through the eyes to put it out of its misery.
- Grey Ghost - killed and partially devoured by Sunfyre. Soon after the Blacks captured King's Landing, the corpse of Grey Ghost was found on the eastern base of the Dragonmont near the shore, completely ripped into two pieces. Fishermen said they earlier seen the Cannibal fighting with Grey Ghost out at sea.
- Moondancer - killed fighting Sunfyre during the fall of Dragonstone to Aegon II by treachery. Baela managed to reach her young dragon and fly it up to attack Sunfyre; somewhat larger (though not huge), but half-crippled by two previous fights. They fell to the ground together. Both Baela and Aegon II survived the fall, Moondancer did not.
- Sunfyre - Sunfyre was mortally wounded by Moondancer and their subsequent fall. It never flew again but it took it six weeks to die from internal injuries - enough time for Aegon II to feed Rhaenyra to it while forcing Aegon III to watch.
Dragons who survived the Dance
Only four dragons survived the Dance:
- Silverwing - while present at Tumbleton it flew away from the second battle and did not take part. Afterwards it flew to the corpse-filled battlefield at night and pitifully nuzzled the corpse of Vermithor, her mate. She was so consumed by grief and rage that none of the Greens were able to take her as a rider, and then they withdrew back to the Reach. Eventually, in grief, she became wild and settled on an island in Red Lake (in the northwest of the Reach near the border with the Westerlands). A large dragon perhaps 50 to 80 years old.
- Sheepstealer - Nettles flew away with Sheepstealer and was not seen again. Archmaester Gyldayn thought she flew out over the Bay of Crabs and then the ocean until Sheepstealer grew too tired to fly back to land, intentionally drowning them both in her grief - but either way, no one ever knew what happened to them. But according to Yandel, what ultimately happened to Nettles and Sheepstealer was eventually discovered...he just doesn't say what. Also large and around 80 years old.
- The Cannibal - While Gyldayn makes no mention of it, Yandel says that the Cannibal also "disappeared" at the end of the Dance. Older than Sheepstealer.
- Morning - bonded to Rhaena of Pentos, hatched from one of Syrax's eggs that she took to the Eyrie during the war. At best two years old by the time the war ended (and probably younger than that), it was too small to ride or take part in the war (think Daenerys's dragons in Season 3).
There were also surviving dragon eggs (whose hatching is unpredictable), and who knows if the surviving dragons may have mated. At any rate, the last surviving dragons were two small stunted creatures who died about twenty years later, late in the reign of Aegon III.
It would be extremely difficult for ANY dragon to fly as dragons are believed to be preposterously huge. So the idea that six limbed dragons would find it harder to fly is at best, trivial, though true. talk 18:23, February 26, 2016 (UTC)
Oh, yes, I don't have an exact link but Martin has commented on this. Basically he chuckled and said that due to simple wait ratios it would be difficult for anything as big as a fantasy dragon to actually fly - simply due to the Inverse Square Ratio: beyond a certain point of increasing size, the volume and internal mass of a large object drastically outpace its surface area. Thus a dragon would have difficulty generating enough lift with its wings.
So, with a wink as it were, he said that he at least tried to get them closer to realism, giving them only four limbs like a bat. The novels also stress that people are surprised that dragons are "mostly creatures of wing, tail, and neck" with very small body cores. Their wings are huge in comparison to their bodies, at least trying to give a nod to realism, that they have very large wing surface area relative to their entire body. Running theory in fandom is that they save on body size by having smaller digestive tracks, like humans, which is one of the reasons they can only eat cooked meat. You need much larger and longer intestines to break down raw meat - cooking it first saves on body mass. Consider that even Balerion the Black Dread, who could comfortably swallow oxen whole, had a body core (torso) around six times the size of a war horse (which isn't that big relative to his head).
Yeah true. Night Furies in How to Train Your Dragon have smaller bodies in comparison to their wings, as do owls. But Night Furies have four legs and a pair of wings. And in Dragons A Fantasy Made Real, or The Last Dragons A Fantasy Made Real they used hydrogen and methane filled air sacs to help them get airborne. --Hulk10 (talk) 18:44, February 26, 2016 (UTC)
How about being nice rather than rude....--Hulk10 (talk) 04:44, May 3, 2016 (UTC) And the idea of dragons constantly growing, not exactly wise biologically speaking as the bigger they got, the more food they would need and eventually they would get so big they wouldn't be able find enough foot to sustain themselves.--Hulk10 (talk) 04:47, May 4, 2016 (UTC)
Tubes that spit fire
I wouldn't be too sure that the tubes in their mouth have that role. It's more likely that they provide a protective coating of something when the dragon spits fire from its throat. From S7E4 you might have noticed how the throat lid up before the dragon spits fire at Jamie, not the tubes. --Lyrixn (talk) 10:23, August 7, 2017 (UTC)