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:''"Valyria" and "Valyrian" redirect here. For other related topics, including specifically the capital City of Valyria, see "[[Valyria (disambiguation)]]".''
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::''"Valyria" redirects here. For other related topics, including specifically the capital City of Valyria, see "[[Valyria (disambiguation)]]".''
 
{{Government
 
{{Government
 
| Title=Valyrian Freehold
 
| Title=Valyrian Freehold
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| Type="Freehold" (Oligarchy)
 
| Type="Freehold" (Oligarchy)
 
| Population=
 
| Population=
| Culture=Valyrian
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| Culture=[[Valyrian]]
| Rulers=Dragonlords
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| Rulers=[[Dragonlords]]
 
| Capital=[[Old Valyria]]
 
| Capital=[[Old Valyria]]
| Religion=
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| Religion=[[Valyrian religion]]
 
| Military=
 
| Military=
 
| Institutions=
 
| Institutions=
 
| Places= Old Valyria, [[Mantarys]], [[Volantis]], [[Lys]], [[Myr]], [[Pentos]], [[Tyrosh]], [[Qohor]], [[Norvos]], [[Lorath]], [[Astapor]], [[Yunkai]], [[Meereen]], [[Dragonstone]]
 
| Places= Old Valyria, [[Mantarys]], [[Volantis]], [[Lys]], [[Myr]], [[Pentos]], [[Tyrosh]], [[Qohor]], [[Norvos]], [[Lorath]], [[Astapor]], [[Yunkai]], [[Meereen]], [[Dragonstone]]
 
| Founding= 5,000 years ago.
 
| Founding= 5,000 years ago.
| Age=
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| Age= Destroyed c.100 BAL
 
| Founder=
 
| Founder=
 
}}
 
}}
[[Image:Old Valyria, City of Wonders.png|thumb|250px|Old Valyria, City of Wonders]]
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[[Image:Valyrian Freehold Essos map.png|thumb|The Valyrian Freehold at its height was vast, ruling most of Essos, from [[Pentos]] to [[Meereen]].]]
The '''Valyrian Freehold''' was the empire established by the Valyrian civilization in the continent of [[Essos]], centered around the city of Valyria in the eponymous peninsula. At its height, the Valyrian Freehold covered over half of [[the known world]].<ref>[[Complete Guide to Westeros]]: The Free Cities</ref>
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''{{Quote|At its height, the Valyrian Freehold ruled over half the known world, not bad for former shepherds . . .|[[Jorah Mormont]]|The Free Cities (Histories & Lore)}}''
  +
The '''Valyrian Freehold''' was the empire established by the Valyrian civilization in the continent of [[Essos]], centered around the city of Valyria in the eponymous peninsula. At its height, the Valyrian Freehold covered over half of [[The Known World|the known world]].<ref>"[[The Free Cities (Histories & Lore)]]"</ref>
   
 
==History==
 
==History==
  +
===The Rise of Valyria===
  +
[[Image:Ancient Valyrian Shepherds Fourteen Fires.png|thumb|The ancient Valyrians were originally humble shepherds who found dragons nesting in the volcanic mountains around their homeland.]]
  +
Thought to initially be a modest community of shepherds, the [[Valyrians]] rose to prominence five thousand years ago after they discovered [[dragons]] living in the [[Fourteen Fires]], a string of volcanoes in the mountains of their homeland. After taming the mighty beasts, the Valyrians used them to conquer surrounding lands of the [[Valyrian Peninsula]], and began expanding outwards.
   
Thought to initially be a modest community of shepherds, the Valyrians rose to prominence five thousand years ago after the discovery of [[dragons]], in the volcanic area known as the [[Fourteen Fires]]. Having tamed the mighty beasts, the Valyrians were able conquer their surrounding lands and began a westward expansion.
+
The [[Ghiscari Empire]], however, sought to halt Valyrian expansion and declared war on their neighbors from the opposite shore of [[Slaver's Bay]]. Massive Ghiscari slave-legions marched against Valyria in [[Valyrian-Ghiscari Wars|a series of five major wars]], but each time they were defeated. The Freehold's forces then marched on the Ghiscari capital of [[Old Ghis|Ghis]] and laid waste to it, leaving little more than a smoldering ruin behind and nearly erasing Ghiscari people and culture from history.
  +
[[Image:Old Valyria, City of Wonders.png|thumb|left|[[Old Valyria]], City of Wonders]]
  +
Afterward, the Valyrian Freehold became the dominant civilization in the known world, with its own [[High Valyrian|language]], religion and customs. The Freehold founded a number of colony cities, connected by a network of roads all of which led back to the capital city. Several of these colonies in the west became the [[Free Cities]]. They eventually came into conflict with the [[Rhoynar]] city-states along the [[Rhoyne]] River, leading to the [[Rhoynish Wars]]. The fighting culminated about one thousand years ago in the defeat of the Rhoynar and destruction of their cities, with the survivors fleeing in a mass migration led by [[Nymeria]], whose refugee fleet eventually settled in [[Dorne]] in southeastern [[Westeros]].
  +
[[File:Daenerys and Viserys.jpg|thumb|Due to generations of [[Incest|inbreeding]], the Targaryens retained distinctly Valyrian features: a pale complexion and white (platinum blonde) hair.]]
  +
A few centuries ago, one of the great houses of Valyria, [[House Targaryen]] established the fortress of [[Dragonstone]] off the coast of the continent of [[Westeros]], using it as a trading outpost of the Valyrian Freehold.
   
The [[Ghiscari Empire]], however, sought to halt Valyrian expansion and declared war on their neighbors from the opposing shore of [[Slaver's Bay]]. Ghiscari legions attacked five times but were defeated. The Freehold's forces then marched on the Ghiscari capital, [[Old Ghis|Ghis]] and laid waste to it, leaving little more than a smoldering ruin behind and nearly erasing Ghiscari people and culture from history.
+
===The Doom and Aftermath===
  +
[[Image:Doom.png|thumb|The [[Doom of Valyria]] was a massive volcanic eruption which destroyed the entire Valyrian civilization in a single day.]]
  +
For nearly five thousand years, Valyrian supremacy remained uncontested. However, a cataclysmic event known as "[[Doom of Valyria|The Doom]]" - a massive volcanic eruption of the Fourteen Fires - laid waste to the Valyrian capital, its people, and the surrounding lands. The Valyrian peninsula itself was shattered and the ocean came sweeping in, becoming the [[Smoking Sea]]. Dragons, as well as Valyrian recorded history, spells, and knowledge were lost. With its center of power destroyed, the empire collapsed. Of the mighty families of dragonlords who ruled the Freehold, only House Targaryen survived, as it had established Dragonstone far across the [[Narrow Sea]] years before the Doom.
   
Afterward, the Valyrian Freehold became the dominant civilization in the known world, with its own [[High Valyrian|language]], religion and customs. The Freehold founded a number of colony cities, connected by a network of roads all of which led back to the capital city.
+
The surviving colonies of the Valyrian Freehold split up into rival independent city-states. In the west, they became the [[Free Cities]]. In the east, the conquered Ghiscari cities of [[Slaver's Bay]] reasserted their independence, but five thousand years of Valyrian domination had swept away most of their original culture.
  +
[[File:Century of Blood Qohor.png|thumb|left|After Valyria fell, their former empire imploded from civil wars and Dothraki raids, known as the [[Century of Blood]].]]
  +
With the heartland of the Freehold destroyed, its surviving colonies to the west and east re-asserted their independence, politically fracturing the continent and initiating a series of savage wars for dominance known as the "[[Century of Blood]]", during which [[Volantis]] attempted to reform the Valyrian empire under their rule, but ultimately failed. Several of these colonies formed into the [[Free Cities]] in the west, and the cities of [[Slaver's Bay]] in the east. The [[Valyrian Peninsula]] itself in the center remained devastated and largely deserted.
   
For nearly five thousand years, Valyrian supremacy remained uncontested. However, a cataclysmic event known as "[[Doom of Valyria|The Doom]]" laid waste to the Valyrian capital, its people, and the surrounding lands. The Valyrian peninsula itself was shattered and the ocean came sweeping in, becoming the [[Smoking Sea]]. Dragons, as well as Valyrian recorded history, spells, and knowledge were lost. With its center of power destroyed, the empire collapsed. Of the mighty families of dragonlords who ruled the Freehold, only one survived, [[House Targaryen]], which had established on [[Dragonstone]] years before the Doom, off the coast of a new continent: [[Westeros]].
+
Meanwhile, without the Valyrians and their dragons to keep them in check, the [[Dothraki]] mounted hordes swept across the continent from the central plains of the [[Dothraki Sea]], plundering and carving out new domains from surrounding areas - from the Dothraki point of view, the Doom started their own golden age of conquest and expansion. In the far northwest of Essos, the hidden city of [[Braavos]], founded by escaped slaves who fled Valyria, now revealed itself to the world. While the other Valyrian colonies were left in chaos, Braavos was an island of stability because it had no political or economic ties with the Freehold, and quickly rose to become the most powerful of the Free Cities.<ref>"[[The Free Cities (Histories & Lore)]]"</ref>
  +
[[File:Valyria 5x05 (4).png|thumb|Tyrion and Jorah travel by boat on the [[Smoking Sea]] through the towering ruins of old Valyria]]
  +
The ruins of Valyria in the Smoking Sea remain and are considered to be cursed by other civilizations. Some believe that 'the Doom still rules Valyria', inhabiting it with demons and preventing anyone from ever entering the ruins and emerging alive. In response to the disease known as [[Greyscale|greyscale]], the cities of the east send those most affected by the plague, known as the [[Stone Men]], to the ruins of Valyria to die. The advanced disease means that few, if any, of the Stone Men retain any lucid thought, becoming monstrous creatures who attack any who wander through Valyria.<ref>"[[Sons of the Harpy (episode)|Sons of the Harpy]]"</ref><ref>"[[Kill the Boy]]"</ref>
   
 
== Cities ==
 
== Cities ==
  +
[[File:Narrow Sea.jpg|thumb|The Valyrian Freehold was vast: in the west, it stretched all the way to its colony city [[Pentos]] on the [[Narrow Sea]], northwestern-most of the Free Cities.]]
  +
[[File:Volantis 5x03 (1).jpg|thumb|[[Volantis]] was the first of the Free Cities founded by the Valyrian Freehold, as well as the southeastern-most.]]
   
 
===Ruined cities===
 
===Ruined cities===
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*[[Tyria]]
 
*[[Tyria]]
 
*[[Oros]]
 
*[[Oros]]
*[[Sar Mell]]
 
   
 
===Surviving colonies in the [[Free Cities]]===
 
===Surviving colonies in the [[Free Cities]]===
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**[[Selhorys]]
 
**[[Selhorys]]
 
**[[Volon Therys]]
 
**[[Volon Therys]]
  +
  +
Note: [[Braavos]] wasn't a Valyrian colony, but a hidden city founded by slaves who escaped from Valyria.
   
 
===Surviving colonies in the [[Valyrian Peninsula]]===
 
===Surviving colonies in the [[Valyrian Peninsula]]===
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===Surviving cities in [[Slaver's Bay]]===
 
===Surviving cities in [[Slaver's Bay]]===
  +
[[File:Meereen.png|thumb|To the east, the Valyrian Freehold stretched all the way to [[Meereen]] and beyond. Slaver's Bay was one of Valyria's early conquests.]]
 
*[[Meereen]]
 
*[[Meereen]]
 
*[[Astapor]]
 
*[[Astapor]]
Line 65: Line 72:
 
==In the books==
 
==In the books==
   
In the ''[[A Song of Ice and Fire]]'' novels, Valyria was neither a kingdom nor an empire: theoretically, all of the freeborn landholders ("free-holders") had equal say in government, hence the formal name of their government was the "Valyrian Freehold". In practice, however, this meant that it was essentially an oligarchy run by the wealthy noble families (there was no single emperor or king). There were about forty great families of wealth, high birth, and strong sorcerous ability, known as Dragonlords, that tended to dominate the rest. The Targaryens were one of these families, but far from the most powerful.
+
In the ''[[A Song of Ice and Fire]]'' novels, Valyria was neither a kingdom nor an empire: theoretically, all of the freeborn landholders ("free-holders") had equal say in government, hence the formal name of their government was the "Valyrian Freehold". In practice, however, this meant that it was essentially an oligarchy run by the wealthy noble families (there was no single emperor or king). There were about forty great families of wealth, high birth, and strong sorcerous ability, known as [[Dragonlords]], that owned dragons and tended to dominate the rest. The Targaryens were one of these families, but far from the most powerful.
   
The Freehold not only conquered the Ghiscari Empire, but also the [[Rhoynar]] people established around the [[Rhoyne]] river, leading to their exodus across the sea to [[Dorne]]. The modern [[Free Cities]], as well as several others, were established as Valyrian colonies and became independent after the empire was shattered. The major exception to this is [[Braavos]], located in the extreme northwest of Essos, which was founded by escaped slaves who fled Valyria, and remained hidden even long after the Doom. Braavos is thus sometimes referred to as the Bastard Son of Valyria.
+
The Freehold not only conquered the Ghiscari Empire, but also the city-states of the [[Rhoynar]] people established around the [[Rhoyne]] river, leading to their exodus across the sea to [[Dorne]]. The modern [[Free Cities]], as well as several others, were established as Valyrian colonies and became independent after the empire was shattered. The major exception to this is [[Braavos]], located in the extreme northwest of Essos, which was founded by escaped slaves who fled Valyria, and remained hidden even long after the Doom. Braavos is thus sometimes referred to as the Bastard Son of Valyria.
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
* [http://awoiaf.westeros.org/index.php/Valyrian_Freehold Valyrian Freehold at A Wiki of Ice and Fire]
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* {{AWOIAF}}
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}
[[Category:Kingdoms]]
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[[de:Freistaat von Valyria]]
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[[es:Valyria]]
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[[fr:Valyria]]
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[[ru:Валирийский Фригольд]]
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[[zh:瓦雷利亚]]
 
[[Category:History]]
 
[[Category:History]]
 
[[Category:Map Needed]]
 
[[Category:Map Needed]]
 
[[Category:Valyria]]
 
[[Category:Valyria]]
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[[Category:Essos]]
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[[Category:Realms]]

Latest revision as of 16:39, February 26, 2016

"Valyria" redirects here. For other related topics, including specifically the capital City of Valyria, see "Valyria (disambiguation)".
Valyrian Freehold Essos map

The Valyrian Freehold at its height was vast, ruling most of Essos, from Pentos to Meereen.

"At its height, the Valyrian Freehold ruled over half the known world, not bad for former shepherds . . ."
Jorah Mormont[src]

The Valyrian Freehold was the empire established by the Valyrian civilization in the continent of Essos, centered around the city of Valyria in the eponymous peninsula. At its height, the Valyrian Freehold covered over half of the known world.[1]

HistoryEdit

The Rise of ValyriaEdit

Ancient Valyrian Shepherds Fourteen Fires

The ancient Valyrians were originally humble shepherds who found dragons nesting in the volcanic mountains around their homeland.

Thought to initially be a modest community of shepherds, the Valyrians rose to prominence five thousand years ago after they discovered dragons living in the Fourteen Fires, a string of volcanoes in the mountains of their homeland. After taming the mighty beasts, the Valyrians used them to conquer surrounding lands of the Valyrian Peninsula, and began expanding outwards.

The Ghiscari Empire, however, sought to halt Valyrian expansion and declared war on their neighbors from the opposite shore of Slaver's Bay. Massive Ghiscari slave-legions marched against Valyria in a series of five major wars, but each time they were defeated. The Freehold's forces then marched on the Ghiscari capital of Ghis and laid waste to it, leaving little more than a smoldering ruin behind and nearly erasing Ghiscari people and culture from history.

Old Valyria, City of Wonders

Old Valyria, City of Wonders

Afterward, the Valyrian Freehold became the dominant civilization in the known world, with its own language, religion and customs. The Freehold founded a number of colony cities, connected by a network of roads all of which led back to the capital city. Several of these colonies in the west became the Free Cities. They eventually came into conflict with the Rhoynar city-states along the Rhoyne River, leading to the Rhoynish Wars. The fighting culminated about one thousand years ago in the defeat of the Rhoynar and destruction of their cities, with the survivors fleeing in a mass migration led by Nymeria, whose refugee fleet eventually settled in Dorne in southeastern Westeros.

Daenerys and Viserys

Due to generations of inbreeding, the Targaryens retained distinctly Valyrian features: a pale complexion and white (platinum blonde) hair.

A few centuries ago, one of the great houses of Valyria, House Targaryen established the fortress of Dragonstone off the coast of the continent of Westeros, using it as a trading outpost of the Valyrian Freehold.

The Doom and AftermathEdit

Doom

The Doom of Valyria was a massive volcanic eruption which destroyed the entire Valyrian civilization in a single day.

For nearly five thousand years, Valyrian supremacy remained uncontested. However, a cataclysmic event known as "The Doom" - a massive volcanic eruption of the Fourteen Fires - laid waste to the Valyrian capital, its people, and the surrounding lands. The Valyrian peninsula itself was shattered and the ocean came sweeping in, becoming the Smoking Sea. Dragons, as well as Valyrian recorded history, spells, and knowledge were lost. With its center of power destroyed, the empire collapsed. Of the mighty families of dragonlords who ruled the Freehold, only House Targaryen survived, as it had established Dragonstone far across the Narrow Sea years before the Doom.

The surviving colonies of the Valyrian Freehold split up into rival independent city-states. In the west, they became the Free Cities. In the east, the conquered Ghiscari cities of Slaver's Bay reasserted their independence, but five thousand years of Valyrian domination had swept away most of their original culture.

Century of Blood Qohor

After Valyria fell, their former empire imploded from civil wars and Dothraki raids, known as the Century of Blood.

With the heartland of the Freehold destroyed, its surviving colonies to the west and east re-asserted their independence, politically fracturing the continent and initiating a series of savage wars for dominance known as the "Century of Blood", during which Volantis attempted to reform the Valyrian empire under their rule, but ultimately failed. Several of these colonies formed into the Free Cities in the west, and the cities of Slaver's Bay in the east. The Valyrian Peninsula itself in the center remained devastated and largely deserted.

Meanwhile, without the Valyrians and their dragons to keep them in check, the Dothraki mounted hordes swept across the continent from the central plains of the Dothraki Sea, plundering and carving out new domains from surrounding areas - from the Dothraki point of view, the Doom started their own golden age of conquest and expansion. In the far northwest of Essos, the hidden city of Braavos, founded by escaped slaves who fled Valyria, now revealed itself to the world. While the other Valyrian colonies were left in chaos, Braavos was an island of stability because it had no political or economic ties with the Freehold, and quickly rose to become the most powerful of the Free Cities.[2]

Valyria 5x05 (4)

Tyrion and Jorah travel by boat on the Smoking Sea through the towering ruins of old Valyria

The ruins of Valyria in the Smoking Sea remain and are considered to be cursed by other civilizations. Some believe that 'the Doom still rules Valyria', inhabiting it with demons and preventing anyone from ever entering the ruins and emerging alive. In response to the disease known as greyscale, the cities of the east send those most affected by the plague, known as the Stone Men, to the ruins of Valyria to die. The advanced disease means that few, if any, of the Stone Men retain any lucid thought, becoming monstrous creatures who attack any who wander through Valyria.[3][4]

Cities Edit

Narrow Sea

The Valyrian Freehold was vast: in the west, it stretched all the way to its colony city Pentos on the Narrow Sea, northwestern-most of the Free Cities.

Volantis 5x03 (1)

Volantis was the first of the Free Cities founded by the Valyrian Freehold, as well as the southeastern-most.

Ruined citiesEdit

Surviving colonies in the Free CitiesEdit

Note: Braavos wasn't a Valyrian colony, but a hidden city founded by slaves who escaped from Valyria.

Surviving colonies in the Valyrian PeninsulaEdit

Surviving cities in Slaver's BayEdit

Meereen

To the east, the Valyrian Freehold stretched all the way to Meereen and beyond. Slaver's Bay was one of Valyria's early conquests.

In the booksEdit

In the A Song of Ice and Fire novels, Valyria was neither a kingdom nor an empire: theoretically, all of the freeborn landholders ("free-holders") had equal say in government, hence the formal name of their government was the "Valyrian Freehold". In practice, however, this meant that it was essentially an oligarchy run by the wealthy noble families (there was no single emperor or king). There were about forty great families of wealth, high birth, and strong sorcerous ability, known as Dragonlords, that owned dragons and tended to dominate the rest. The Targaryens were one of these families, but far from the most powerful.

The Freehold not only conquered the Ghiscari Empire, but also the city-states of the Rhoynar people established around the Rhoyne river, leading to their exodus across the sea to Dorne. The modern Free Cities, as well as several others, were established as Valyrian colonies and became independent after the empire was shattered. The major exception to this is Braavos, located in the extreme northwest of Essos, which was founded by escaped slaves who fled Valyria, and remained hidden even long after the Doom. Braavos is thus sometimes referred to as the Bastard Son of Valyria.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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